Industry Handbook Aerospace

ASNT Industry Handbook: Aerospace NDT

The Technical and Education Council is preparing this volume for future publication.

Outline

  1. Introduction
  • Purpose of the Aerospace Handbook
  • Importance of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) to the Aerospace Industry
  • History
  1. Aerospace Structure
  • Introduction
  • Vehicles
  • Aircraft
  • Spacecraft
  • Missiles and Rockets
  • Propulsion Systems
  • Civilian and Military Aircraft Propulsion
  • Missiles and Rocket Propulsion
  • Importance of NDT
  • Conceptual and Initial Design Phases
  • Primary Design and Fabrication
  • Structural Failure Modes
  • Elastic Deformation
  • Plastic Deformation
  • Buckling
  • Fatigue
  • Creep
  • Corrosion
  • Hydrogen Embrittlement
  • Wear
  • Evolution of Structural Design and Fatigue Considerations
  • Regulatory Evolution
  • Fatigue Effects on Aircraft Design
  • Static Life, Infinite Life and Safe Life
  • Damage Tolerant Design
  • Pre Existing Damage Growth
  • Slow Crack Growth
  • Fail-Safe Design
  • Institution of Modern Damage Tolerance Programs
  • Widespread Fatigue Damage
  • Corrosion, Surface Finish, Wear and Erosion, and Aging Aircraft
  • Structural Design and Damage Tolerance for Composite Materials
  • Composite Materials
  • Carbon Fiber Composites
  • Mechanical Properties of Composite Fiber Laminates
  • Fatigue and Composites
  • Composite Structure
  • Structure Durability, Damage Resistance and Damage Tolerance of Composites
  • Bonded Assemblies
  • Laminate Bonds
  • Sandwich Structure
  • Bond Certification
  • In-Service NDT
  1. Reliability
  • Introduction to Reliability of NDT
  • Probability of Detection (POD) and Other Performance Measures
  • POD Estimation
  • False Call Rates
  • Receiver Operating Characteristic
  • Common Mistakes in Estimation of NDT Reliability
  • Human Factors and NDT
  • Model Assisted POD
  1. Inspection Method Selection Cross Reference Tables
  • Material Tables
  • Composite Laminate
  • Foam Composite
  • Honeycomb Structure
  • Non-metals
  • Castings
  • Forgings
  • Machined Parts
  • Fastened Structure
  • Welded Joints
  • Bonded Joint Assemblies
  • Coatings
  • Engines and Motors
  • Subsystems
  • In-Service or Damaged Structure
  • Electronics
  • Methods Tables
  1. Visual Testing
  • Introduction
  • Optics
  • Vision Acuity
  • Instruments
  • Magnifying Lenses
  • Borescopes
  • Micro Borescopes
  • Fiber Optic Borescopes
  • Video Borescopes
  • Optical Techniques
  • Diffracted Light
  • Optical Profilers
  • Photogrammetry
  • Fringe Measurements
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Applications
  • Aircraft
  • Engines
  1. Liquid Penetrant Testing
  • Introduction
  • Penetrant Principles
  • Methods
  • Penetrant Materials
  • Penetrant Processes
  • Safety
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Probability of Detection
  • Process Performance
  • Human Performance
  • Applications
  1. Magnetic Particle Testing
  • Principles
  • Magnetic Methods
  • Magnetization Fields
  • Field Intensity
  • Magnetic Particles
  • Magnetic Particle Wet Bath Strength
  • Standards and Specifications
  • Standards
  • Calibration and System Performance of Equipment
  • Safety Concerns
  • Applications
  1. Electromagnetic Testing
  • Principles
  • Introduction
  • Electromagnetic Theory
  • Methods
  • Basic Eddy Current Testing
  • Factors that can affect Eddy Current Testing
  • Multiple Frequency Testing
  • Pulse Eddy Current
  • Eddy Current Sensor Arrays
  • Signal Processing
  • Remote Field Testing
  • Meandering Winding Magnetometer
  • Magneto-Optic Imagers
  • Magneto-Resistive Sensing
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Test Procedures for Electromagnetic Testing
  • Electromagnetic Testing Standards
  • Personnel Qualification and Certification
  • Aerospace Applications of Eddy Current Testing
  • Introduction
  • Advantages of Electromagnetic Testing
  • Limitations of Eddy Current Testing
  • Conductivity Measurements
  • Coating Thickness Measurements
  • Layer Thickness Measurements
  • Corrosion Inspection
  • Crack Detection
  • Bolthole Inspection
  • Examination of Engine Components
  1. Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
  • Principles
  • Wave Behavior
  • Sources and Detection of Ultrasound
  • Basic Methods
  • Pulse Echo and Through-Transmission
  • Resonance
  • Phased Array
  • Specialized or Emerging Methods
  • Air Coupled UT
  • Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers
  • Laser UT
  • Spectroscopy
  • Surface Waves
  • Guided or Lamb Waves
  • Nonlinear Acoustics
  • Real Time Imaging
  • Acoustic Holography
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Application Examples
  1. Radiographic Testing
  • Radiographic Principles
  • Physics of X-Ray Attenuation
  • Radiographic X-Ray Sources
  • Exposure Factor
  • Radiographic Detection and Imaging
  • Radiologic Techniques
  • Film Radiography
  • Computed Radiography (Photostimulable Phosphor)
  • Radioscopy
  • Digital Detector Arrays
  • Computed Tomography
  • Factors Affecting Image Quality
  • Contrast Sensitivity
  • Spatial Resolution
  • Scattered Radiation
  • Artifacts
  • Orientation
  • Radiographic Sensitivity Measurement
  • Image Quality Indicators
  • Contrast Sensitivity
  • Detail Sensitivity
  • Radiographic Interpretation
  • General
  • Film Interpretation
  • Specialized Methods
  • Laminography
  • Stereo Radiography
  • Reverse Geometry X-Ray
  • Backscatter
  • Flash Radiography
  • Neutron Radiography
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Applications
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • What Can Go Wrong Table
  • Castings
  • Welds
  • Honeycomb
  • Corrosion
  • Cracks
  • Composites
  • Wear
  • Geometry
  • Electronics
  1. Infrared and Thermal Testing
  • Principles
  • Irradiation ues
  • Heat Gun
  • Flash Lamp
  • Pulsed
  • Phase Locked
  • Vibrothermography
  • Specifications
  • Applications
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • "What Can Go Wrong" Table
  • Moisture Detection
  • Electrical Components
  • Patch Repair
  1. Shearography and Holography
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Development
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Principles of Operation
  • Shearography NDT Techniques
  • Holographic Interferometry NDT
  • Stress Loading
  • Shearography Image
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • Laser and Sound Safety
  • Referenced Documents and Standards
  • Applications
  • Setup
  • Selecting the Field of the View (FOV)
  • Definition of Defect Indication
  • Image scale and FOV
  • Calibration
  • Standards
  • Thermal Loading Shearography Examples
  • Vacuum Loading Shearography Examples
  • Pressure Loading Shearography Examples
  • Vibration Shearography Examples
  • NDT System Configurations
  1. Acoustic Emission Testing
  • Principles
  • Methods
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Applications
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • "What Can Go Wrong" Table
  • Examples
  • Pressure Vessel
  • Structural Test
  • Aircraft Monitoring
  1. Bond Testing - NTIAC State of the Art Report
  • Bond Testing Principles
  • Methods
  • Tap Testing
  • Mechanical Impedance
  • Acoustic Resonance
  • Shock Waves
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Applications
  • Table of Bond Test Options with Advantages and Limitations
  • "What Can Go Wrong" Table
  • Examples
  • Composite Sandwich Structure
  • Composite Bonds
  • Metallic Bonds
  1. Structural Health Monitoring
  • Principles
  • Methods
  • Relevant Standards and Specifications
  • Applications
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • Examples
  1. Material Characterization
  • Barkhausen
  • Dielectric Capacitance
  • Four Point Potential Drop
  • X-Ray Diffraction
  • Positron Annihilation
  1. Additional Topics
  • Microwave Testing
  • Microwave Principles
  • Microwave Techniques
  • Specifications
  • Aerospace Applications
  • Leak Testing
  • Principles
  • Table of Techniques' Advantages and Limitations
  • Magnetic Resonance
  • Beta Backscatter
  • Infrared Surface Surveying
  • Vibration Resonance Analysis
  • Data Fusion
  1. Reference Tables, Formulas, Equations
  • English to Metric Conversion
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Microwave Bands
  • Periodic Table of the Elements
  • Temperature Conversion Table
  • Ultrasonic Parameters for Materials
  • Density
  • Wave Speeds
  • Acoustic Impedance
  • Electromagnetic Parameters for Materials
  • Conductivity and Resistance
  • Permeability
  • Dielectric Constant
  • X-Ray Attenuation Coefficients
  • Neutron Cross Sections
  • Fluorescence Lines
  • Thermal Parameters for Materials
  • Heat Capacity
  • Reflectivity and Absorption
  • Diffusion Coefficient
  • Equations Common in NDT
  1. Glossary and Symbols