Personnel Training Publications: Magnetic Particle Testing Classroom Training Book (eBook)

Each volume covers Level I and Level II material.

A sampling of content:

  • Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing
  • Effects of Discontinuities of Materials
  • Principles of Demagnetization
  • Equipment Selection
  • Discontinuities
  • Magnetic Particles and Methods of Application
  • Magnetization by Means of Electric Current
  • Inherent Discontinuities
  • Evaluation Techniques
  • Quality Control

  • Member Price: $19.50
  • Non-member Price: $26.50
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Additional Details

  • Item Number: 1641-e
  • Published: 2004
  • Pages: 176
  • ISBN: 978-1-57117-274-7

Acknowledgments

Foreword

Chapter 1: Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing

  • Capabilities of Magnetic Particle Testing
  • Magnets and Magnetic Fields
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Detection of Discontinuities
  • Law of Magnetism
    • Materials Influenced by Magnetic Fields
  • Characteristics of Magnetic Fields
  • Personnel Qualifications

Chapter 2: Effects of Discontinuities on Materials

  • Surface Discontinuities
    • Scratches
  • Subsurface Discontinuities

Chapter 3: Magnetization

  • Magnetization Methods
  • Circular Fields
    • Direct Magnetization
    • Indirect Magnetization
    • Skin Effect
    • Inducing Magnetic Fields in Test Objects
    • Equipment for Inducing Circular Fields
      • Contact Plates
      • Prods
    • Discontinuity Detection
  • Longitudinal Fields
    • Field Strength and Direction
    • Discontinuities Detected by Longitudinal Fields
    • Advantages of Longitudinal Magnetization
    • Disadvantages of Longitudinal Magnetization
  • Multidirectional Magnetization
  • Test Materials
    • Wet Particles
    • Dry Particles

Chapter 4: Principles of Demagnetization

  • Alternating Current Demagnetization
  • Direct Current Demagnetization
  • Efficiency of Demagnetization
  • Reasons for Demagnetization
    • Required Demagnetization
    • Residual Fields
  • Reasons Not to Demagnetize
  • Batch Demagnetization

Chapter 5: Equipment

  • Equipment Selection
    • Purpose of Test
    • Area Tested
    • Particles Used
  • Mobile Equipment
  • Stationary Testing Equipment
    • Automated Equipment
  • Medical Safety Considerations

Chapter 6: Discontinuities

  • Inherent Discontinuities
  • Processing Discontinuities
    • Primary Processing Discontinuities
      • Rolling and Extruding Discontinuities
      • Forging Discontinuities
      • Welding Discontinuities
    • Secondary Processing Discontinuities
  • Inservice Discontinuities
  • Summary

Chapter 7: Magnetic Principles

  • Theories of Magnetism
    • Magnetic Flux Leakage
  • Magnetic Particle Testing Procedure
  • Testing Techniques
  • Magnetic Field Theory
    • Magnetic Domains
    • Magnetic Poles
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Magnetized Ring
      • Effect of Cracks in a Magnetized Ring
    • Bar Magnet
      • Effect of Cracks in a Magnetized Bar
    • Retentivity and Coercive Force
  • Effect of Materials on Electromagnetic Fields
  • Units of Measure for Magnetic Flux
  • Magnetic Hysteresis
    • Magnetic Field Strength and Flux Density
    • Removal of Residual Magnetism
    • Residual Magnetism and Heat-Treatment
  • Magnetic Permeability

Chapter 8: Flux Fields

  • Electric Current
    • Alternating Current
      • Safety Precautions
    • Direct Current
      • Half-Wave Current
      • Single-Phase Full-Wave Current
      • Three-Phase Full-Wave Current
    • Voltage and Current Factors

Chapter 9: Magnetic Particles and Methods of Application

  • Introduction
    • Particle Size
    • Dry versus Wet Applications
      • Use of Wetting Agents
      • Dry Applicators
    • Current Level and Particle Application
  • Selection of Magnetization Technique
  • Continuous Method
    • Continuous Wet Method Procedure
    • Magnetizing Current with the Continuous Method
  • Residual Method
    • Residual Method Amperage
    • Residual Wet Method Procedure
    • Use of Dry Powders with the Residual Method
  • Field Direction
  • Magnetic Field Measurements
    • Hall Effect Meter
    • Pie Gage
    • Adhesive Indicator
  • Circular Magnetization
    • Direct Contact
    • Central Conductor
    • Amperage for Circular Magnetization
      • Direct Contact Amperage
      • Central Conductor Amperage
  • Longitudinal Magnetization
    • Coil Shot
    • Cable Wrap
    • Amperage for Longitudinal Magnetization
  • Sensitivity Level
    • Effect of Amperage on Sensitivity
    • Effect of Testing Media on Sensitivity
      • Wet Method
      • Dry Method
      • Magnetic Flux Density

Chapter 10: Magnetization by Means of Electric Current

  • Units of Measure and Terminology
    • SI Units for Magnetic Testing
      • Magnetic Field Intensity
      • Magnetic Flux Density
      • Magnetic Flux
      • Illumination
      • Ultraviolet Radiation
  • Types of Magnetic Materials
    • Diamagnetic Materials
    • Paramagnetic Materials
    • Ferromagnetic Materials
  • Circular Magnetization
    • Circular Magnetization of Solid Test Objects
      • Circular Magnetization with Prods
      • Circular Magnetization with Direct Contact
      • Circular Magnetization with Induced Current
    • Circular Magnetization of Hollow Test Objects
  • Longitudinal Magnetization
    • Coil Magnetization
      • Important Considerations in Coil Magnetization
    • Field-Flow Magnetization
    • Yoke Magnetization
      • Yoke Break or Lift Test
      • Concurrent Leakage
  • Combined Circular and Longitudinal Magnetization
  • Calculation of Magnetic Force Requirements
    • Prods
    • Yokes
    • Coils
      • Air-Core Coil Longitudinal Magnetization
      • Fill-Factor Coils
  • Magnetic Particle Indications
    • Generation of Indications
    • Interpretation of Indications
    • Evaluation of Indications
    • Magnetic Writing

Chapter 11: Advanced Demagnetization Techniques

  • Purpose
  • Principles of Operation for Demagnetization
  • Requirements to Demagnetize
    • Reasons to Demagnetize
    • Reasons Not to Demagnetize
  • Demagnetization Methods
    • Heating above the Curie Point
    • Electromagnetic Demagnetization
    • Alternating Current Demagnetization
    • Direct Current Demagnetization
    • Yoke Demagnetization
  • Demagnetization Practices

Chapter 12: Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment

  • Stationary Equipment
    • Mechanized Equipment
    • Semiautomatic Equipment
      • Single-Purpose Semiautomatic Equipment
    • Fully Automatic Equipment
  • Portable Equipment
  • Multidirectional Equipment
  • Dry Powder Test Equipment
    • Powder Selection
    • Powder Applications
    • Applicators
  • Wet Visible Test Equipment
    • Particle Selection
      • Black Powder Concentrate
      • Red Powder Concentrate
      • Suspension Characteristics
      • Water- and Oil-Suspendible Concentrates
    • Media
    • Surface Preparation for Wet Method
  • Wet Fluorescent Method
    • Test Variables
      • Bath Strength
      • Volume Loss
      • Bath Replenishment
  • Suspension Preparation
    • Fluorescent Dye Separation Check
    • Suspension Application
      • Dry Powder Liquid Concentrate
      • Wet Paste Concentrate
  • Water Baths
    • Water Bath Safety
    • Water Bath Issues
    • Water Bath Concentration
    • Settling Test
      • Wet Magnetic Particles for Yoke Magnetization
    • Fluorescent Background Check
    • Oil-Based Media Contamination Check
  • Fluorescent Test Materials
    • Maintenance
    • Surface Preparation for Wet Fluorescent Method
    • Fluorescent Bath Test Variables
  • Ultraviolet Radiation
    • Generation of Ultraviolet Radiation
    • Ultraviolet Lamp Fixtures
    • Sources
      • Carbon Arc Systems
      • Low-Pressure Fluorescent Bulbs
      • High-Pressure Arc Bulbs

Chapter 13: Types of Discontinuities

  • Introduction
    • Effects of Discontinuities on Materials
  • Inherent Discontinuities
    • Cold Shut
    • Pipe
    • Hot Tears
    • Blowholes and Porosity
    • Nonmetallic Inclusions
    • Segregation
  • Primary Processing Discontinuities
    • Seams
    • Laminations
    • Stringers
    • Cupping
    • Cooling Cracks
    • Forged and Rolled Laps
    • Internal and External Bursts
    • Hydrogen Flakes
    • Welding Discontinuities
      • Cold Cracking
      • Hot Cracking
      • Lamellar Tearing
      • Lack of Fusion
      • Lack of Penetration
      • Porosity
      • Inclusions
      • Undercut
      • Overlap
  • Secondary Processing Discontinuities
    • Grinding Cracks
    • Heat-Treating and Quench Cracks
    • Pickling Cracks
    • Machining Tears
    • Plating Cracks
  • Inservice Discontinuities
    • Fatigue Cracking
      • Fatigue Crack Structure
    • Creep Cracking
    • Stress-Corrosion Cracking
    • Hydrogen Cracking

Chapter 14: Evaluation Techniques

  • Reference Standards
    • Empirical Rules for Using Reference Standards
  • System Evaluation
    • System Standardization
    • Parametric Evaluations
      • Weld Bead Crack Reference Standards
    • Technique Development
    • Reference Standards for System Evaluation
  • Standard Tool Steel Ring
    • Using the Ring Standard
    • Ring Standard Magnetic Fields
    • Limitations of the Ring Standard
  • Reference Standard Test Blocks
    • Prism Test Block
    • Split Prism Test Block
    • Magnetized Test Blocks
    • Block Standard Measurements
  • Electronic Reference Standards
    • Hall Effect Meters
    • Eddy Current Devices
  • Summary

Chapter 15: Quality Control

  • Introduction
    • New Materials
    • In-Use Materials
  • Bath Degradation
    • Material Contamination
    • Evaporation Losses
    • Heat Degradation
    • Process Degradation
  • Material Control Requirements
    • Use of the Settling Test
  • Ultraviolet Radiation and Facilities
    • Ultraviolet Radiation Intensity Requirements
      • Ambient Light Measurements
      • Ultraviolet Light Measurements
    • Variables
      • Ultraviolet Lamps
      • Line Voltage Variations
      • Service and Aging Variations
    • Ultraviolet Lamp Hazards
  • Proper Procedures
    • Variation in Technique
    • Selection of Current
    • Current Application Choices
    • Selection of Media
    • Selection of Technique
    • Field Orientation
      • Head Shot
      • Central Conductor
      • Longitudinal Field
    • Sensitivity Requirements
  • Conclusion

References

Figure Sources

Glossary

Index

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