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Working Safely in Radiography

Product Number 232

Previously published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, this edition is now being published by ASNT. Includes information on X-ray safety and contains new photographs.

  • Member Price: $36.50
  • Non-member Price: $49.50
Format Softcover


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Additional Details

  • Item Number: 0232
  • Published: 2004
  • Pages: 144
  • ISBN: 1-57117-231-1

Editor’s Preface


Chapter 1 - Why Is Safety Training Important?

  • What Is Industrial Radiography?
  • The Beginning of Radiography
    • Discovery of Radium
    • Early Gamma Radiography
  • Radiation Hazards
  • Causes of Radiography Accidents
  • Radiography Facilities
    • Radiation Safety Inspections and Audits
      • Government Licensing
    • Radiation Safety Officer
    • Written Procedures
    • Emergencies
    • Internal Inspections
  • Personnel Certification for Radiation Safety
    • Safety Personnel Certification
    • Radiographer Certification

Chapter 2 - What Is Radiation?

  • A Form of Energy
    • X-radiation
    • Gamma Ray Radiation
    • Collisions
    • Ionization
  • Radiation Quantities and Units
    • Disintegration Rate
    • Exposure
    • Absorbed Dose
    • Dose Equivalent
    • Quality Factor
  • Compound Units
  • Permissible Doses
    • ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable)
      • Prospective Annual Limit for Occupationally
    • Exposed Personnel
      • Permissible Levels of Radiation in Unrestricted Areas
      • Restricted Areas
      • Exposure of Minors
      • Exposure of Females
  • How Much Radiation Are People Exposed To?
    • Natural Sources of Radiation
    • Radiation from Manufactured Sources
    • Occupational Radiation Doses
  • Questions

Chapter 3 - What Is Radioactivity?

  • Radioactivity
    • X-ray Machines
  • Radioactive Decay
    • Half Life
  • Using Graphs
    • Logarithmic Scales
  • Questions

Chapter 4 - What Are the Harmful Effects of Radiation?

  • Prompt Effects of Radiation
    • Radiation Burns
    • Severe Radiation Burn
    • Other Examples
    • Radiation Sickness
    • Deaths from a Radiography Source
  • Delayed Effects of Radiation
    • Cancer
    • How Large Is the Cancer Risk?
    • Genetic Defects from Radiation
    • Radiation Exposure of Pregnant Women
    • How Sure are Scientists About Delayed Effects of Radiation?
  • Questions
  • True or False

Chapter 5 - How Do Time, Distance and Shielding Affect Dose?

  • Time
  • Distance
    • The Inverse Square Law
  • Shielding
    • Protective Enclosures
    • Classes of Installations for X-rays and Gamma Rays
      • Protective Installation
      • Enclosed Installation
      • Unattended Installation
      • Open Installation
  • Discussion
  • Questions

Chapter 6 - How Is Radiation Detected and Measured?

  • Survey Meters Measure Dose Rate
    • Reading a Survey Meter
    • Starting Work with an Operable Survey Meter
    • Making a Radiation Survey
    • Calibration
  • Dosimeters Measure Dose
    • Pocket Dosimeters
    • Film Badges
    • Thermoluminescent Dosimeters
    • Alarm Rate Meter
  • Alarm Systems at Permanent Installations
    • Testing Sources for Leaks
  • Questions

Chapter 7 - How Do Radiography Cameras Work?

  • Types of Cameras
  • Daily Maintenance
  • Quarterly Maintenance
  • Discussion

Chapter 8 - What Are the Basic Rules for Radiography?

  • Who Regulates Radiographers?
  • Reciprocity
  • Offshore Work Sites
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations
    • Part 19 – Radiographers Bill of Rights
    • Part 20 – Basic Radiation Safety
    • Part 34 – Responsibilities [Section 20.2204]
  • True or False
  • Questions

Chapter 9 - What Are the Rules for Transporting Sources?

  • Packaging
    • Special Form and Normal Form [49 CFR Section 173.389(a) and Section 173.398(a)]
    • Amount of Radioactivity in Packages [49 CFR Section 173.389]
    • Type B Packaging [49 CFR Section 173.394(b)]
    • Radiation Limits for Packages
    • Warning Labels
  • Moving the Source to the Work Site
  • Receiving and Shipping Sources
    • Receiving a Source
    • Shipping a Source
  • Questions

Chapter 10 - How Can Following Procedures Help the Radiographer?

  • Operating Procedures
  • Emergency Procedures
    • Recognizing the Emergency
    • Immediate Response
  • Discussion

Chapter 11 - Why Do Radiography Accidents Happen?

  • How Radiography Accidents Happen
    • A Source Is Left Exposed
    • The Omitted Survey
    • Not Locking the Camera
  • But Why?
    • A Case History
    • Some Other Examples
    • The Human Factor
  • Discussion

Appendix A - Agreement States

Appendix B- Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

Appendix C - Glossary

Appendix D - Overexposure Accidents 1971-1980

Appendix E - References and Notes

Appendix F - Credits and Acknowledgments

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