An Introduction to Nondestructive Testing Second Edition

Product Number 185

This publication is written for the NDT novice. It is intended to acquaint the reader with the fundamental nature of NDT. Contents: emphasis on the more common methods (ultrasonics, radiography, magnetic particle, penetrant testing, and eddy current), with a detailed overview of other testing techniques. The author covers the basic physical concepts of the testing techniques, how they are selected, who uses them, and how effective they are in practice.

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Additional Details

  • Item Number: 0185
  • Published: 2009
  • Pages: 56
  • Edition: Second
  • ISBN: 978-1-57117-196-2

Acknowledgments

Preface

1 • An Overview of Nondestructive Testing

  • The NDT Approach
  • The Need for Testing
  • NDT Methods
  • Method Selection
  • Detecting Discontinuities
  • Surface
  • Subsurface
  • Contrast with Destructive Testing
  • An Interpretive Technology
  • Certification of Technicians
  • Test Variables
  • Improving Test Results
  • Standards for Comparison
  • Automation
  • Applications of NDT
  • New Parts Manufacturing
  • Inservice Applications
  • Industrial Sectors

2 • Liquid Penetrant Testing

  • Selecting Liquid Penetrant Testing
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages and Limitations
  • Basic Technique
  • Leak Detection
  • Types of Liquid Penetrant
  • Sensitivity
  • Sensitivity Categories
  • Test Panels
  • Methods of Removal
  • Developers
  • Equipment
  • Portable Equipment
  • Stationary Testing Equipment
  • Small Parts Testing Unit
  • Automated Testing Systems
  • System Concept Precautions
  • Safety Precautions
  • Personnel Requirements

3 • Magnetic Particle Testing

  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Basic Magnetic Particle Process
  • Preparation of Parts
  • Magnetization
  • Application of Particles
  • Assessment of Discontinuities
  • Demagnetization
  • Cleaning and Surface Protection
  • Magnetic Particle Testing Methods
  • Continuous
  • Residual
  • Properties of Magnetic Particles
  • Dry Powders
  • Wet Suspension
  • Comparison of Wet and Dry Methods
  • Advantages of the Dry Method
  • Advantages of the Wet Method
  • Methods of Magnetization
  • Longitudinal Magnetization
  • Induced Current Magnetization
  • Circular Magnetization
  • Equipment
  • Magnetizing Equipment
  • Coils and Insulated Conductors
  • Yokes
  • Prods and Clamps
  • Bench Testing
  • Magnetic Field Indicators
  • Interpretation of Indications
  • Spurious Indications
  • Discontinuity Indications
  • Meter Readings and Current Flow
  • Personnel Requirements

4 • Electromagnetic Testing

  • Eddy Current Technique
  • Advantages
  • Limitations
  • Basic Eddy Current Principles
  • Applications
  • Capabilities
  • Factors Affecting Eddy Currents
  • Coils and Probes
  • Surface Probes
  • Internal Probes
  • Encircling Coils
  • Hybrid Coils
  • Probe Precautions
  • Bridge Circuits
  • Detection of Discontinuities
  • Reference Standards
  • Scan Paths
  • Flat Surfaces
  • Areas Around Fasteners
  • Radii
  • Holes
  • Corrosion Detection
  • Subsurface Crack Detection
  • Paint
  • Displays
  • Analog
  • Digital
  • Impedance Plane
  • Operating Point
  • Other Electromagnetic Approaches

5 • Ultrasonic Testing

  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Ultrasonic Principles
  • Acoustics
  • Transducers
  • Piezoelectric Effect
  • Detection of Discontinuities
  • Pulse-Echo Technique
  • Resonance Technique
  • Through-Transmission Technique
  • Displays
  • A-scan Presentation
  • B-scan Presentation
  • C-scan Presentation
  • Factors Affecting Ultrasonic Testing
  • Effects of Temperature Changes
  • Sensitivity
  • Resolution
  • Dead Zone
  • Propagation of Ultrasonic Waves
  • Near Field and Far Field
  • Sound Attenuation in the Far Field
  • Ultrasound and Material Interfaces
  • Acoustic Impedance
  • Couplant
  • Probe Designs
  • Normal Angle Compressional Probe
  • Shear and Surface Wave Probes
  • Twin Crystal Probes
  • Paintbrush Transducers
  • Water Immersion Probes
  • Thickness Gages
  • Gates
  • Phased Arrays
  • Calibration of Equipment

6 • Radiographic Testing

  • Advantages
  • Limitations
  • Types of Radiation
  • X-rays
  • Gamma Rays
  • Principles of Radiography
  • Processing the Radiographic Image
  • Processing Units
  • The Darkroom
  • Exposure Factors
  • Film Speed
  • Graininess
  • Contrast
  • Alternatives to Film
  • Image Enhancement
  • The X-ray Tube
  • Special Electron Accelerators
  • Intensifying Screens
  • Cassettes and Film Holders
  • Scatter Radiation
  • Reduction of Scatter
  • Geometric Unsharpness
  • Measuring Quality
  • Image Quality Indicators (Penetrameters)
  • Radiographic Film Interpretation
  • Illuminators
  • Analyzing the Image
  • Identification of Radiographs
  • Health Issues
  • Permissible Radiation Dose
  • Protection against Radiation
  • Film Badges
  • Dose Rate Meters (Survey Meters)
  • Procedures, Specifications and Codes
  • Computerized Radiography

7 • Visual Testing

  • Need for Adequate Lighting
  • Optical Enhancements
  • Mirrors
  • Magnifying Devices
  • Handheld Lenses
  • Pocket Microscopes
  • Self-Supporting Magnifiers
  • Eye Attachments
  • Illuminated Magnifiers
  • Borescopes and Fiberscopes
  • Borescopes
  • Fiberscopes
  • Charge Coupled Devices
  • Digital Imaging
  • Metallographic Replication
  • Photoelastic Coatings
  • Dimensional Inspection

8 • Other NDT Methods and Techniques

  • Liquid Penetrant Related
  • Temper Etch
  • Magnetic Particle Related
  • Magnetic Barkhausen Effect
  • Electromagnetic Related
  • Strain Gages (Eddy Current)
  • Microwave Testing
  • Acoustic Based
  • Acoustic Emission
  • Vibration Analysis
  • Radiographically Derived Techniques
  • Neutron Radiography
  • Stereoradiography
  • X-ray Fluorescence
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Image Intensifier (Amplifier)
  • Fluorography
  • Color Radiography
  • Microradiography
  • Xeroradiography
  • X-ray Computed Tomography
  • Radiometry
  • Laser Methods
  • Stress-Inducing Methods
  • Leak Testing
  • Thermal/Infrared Testing
  • Dynamic Techniques
  • Passive Techniques
  • Optical Holography

9 • NDT Certification

  • Employer-Based Certification
  • Central Certification
  • Choice of Certification System
  • Program Documentation
  • Appendix B • NDT Specifications
  • Appendix A • NDT Terminology
  • Appendix C • Discontinuity Guide

References and Figures

  • General References
  • Bibliography
  • Figure Sources

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