The NDT Handbook Fourth Edition Vol 2

Testing Handbook
fourth edition
Volume 2

Leak Testing

Nondestructive Testing Handbook, fourth edition: Leak Testing

At ASNT’s Spring Conference, Dallas, TX, March 2011, the Leak Testing Committee of ASNT’s Technical and Education Council resolved that the working outline of the fourth edition handbook volume on leak testing would be based on the table of contents of the NDT Handbook, third edition: Volume 1, Leak Testing. The editors have the discretion to modify the arrangement as need arises.

Persons willing to participate as reviewers are invited to contact the committee chair, Todd Sellmer (Washington TRU Solutions, 575-706-0036, or the handbook editor, Patrick Moore, ASNT 614-384-2484,


  • Chapter 1. Introduction to Leak Testing
  • Part 1. Nondestructive Testing
  • Part 2. Management and Applications of Leak Testing
  • Part 3. History of Leak Testing
  • Part 4. Units of Measure for Nondestructive Testing
  • Chapter 2. Safety Aspects of Leak Testing
  • Part 1. General Safety Procedures for Test Personnel
  • Part 2. Control of Hazards from Airborne Toxic Liquids, Vapors and Particles
  • Part 3. Flammable Liquids and Vapors
  • Part 4. Electrical and Lighting Hazards
  • Part 5. Safety Precautions with Leak Testing Tracer Gases
  • Part 6. Safety Precautions with Compressed Gas Cylinders
  • Part 7. Safety Precautions in Pressure and Vacuum Leak Testing
  • Part 8. Preparation of Pressurized Systems for Safe Leak Testing
  • Part 9. Exposure to Toxic Substances
  • Chapter 3. Tracer Gases in Leak Testing
  • Part 1. Introduction to Properties of Tracer Gases for Leak Testing
  • Part 2. Mechanisms of Gaseous Flow through Leaks
  • Part 3. Practical Measurement of Leakage Rates with Tracer Gases
  • Part 4. Mathematical Theory of Gas Flow through Leaks
  • Chapter 4. Calibrated Reference Leaks
  • Part 1. Calibrated Reference Leaks
  • Part 2. Operation of Standard (Calibrated) Halogen Leaks
  • Part 3. Operation of Standard (Calibrated) Helium Leaks
  • Part 4. Calibration of Standard Reference Leaks
  • Chapter 5. Pressure Change and Flow Rate Techniques for Determining Leakage Rates
  • Part 1. Introduction to Pressure Instrumentation, Measurements and Analysis
  • Part 2. Pressure Change Leakage Rate Tests in Pressurized Systems
  • Part 3. Pressure Change Tests for Measuring Leakage in Evacuated Systems
  • Part 4. Flow Rate Tests for Measuring Leakage Rates in Systems near Atmospheric Pressure
  • Chapter 6. Leak Testing of Vacuum Systems
  • Part 1. The Nature of Vacuum
  • Part 2. Principles of Operation of Vacuum Systems and Components
  • Part 3. Materials for Vacuum Systems
  • Part 4. Vacuum System Maintenance and Troubleshooting
  • Part 5. Equipment and Techniques for Measuring Pressure in Vacuum Systems
  • Part 6. Techniques for Detection of Large Leaks in Operating Vacuum Systems
  • Part 7. Leak Testing of Vacuum Systems by Vacuum Gage Response Technique
  • Part 8. Leak Testing of Systems by Thermal Conductivity Techniques
  • Part 9. Leak Testing of Vacuum Systems by Ionization Gage or Pump Techniques
  • Chapter 7. Bubble Testing
  • Part 1. Introduction to Bubble Emission Techniques of Leak Testing
  • Part 2. Theory of Bubble Testing by Liquid Immersion Technique
  • Part 3. Bubble Testing by Liquid Film Application Technique
  • Part 4. Bubble Testing by Vacuum Box Technique
  • Part 5. Procedures and Applications of Bubble Testing in Industry
  • Chapter 8. Techniques and Applications of Helium Mass Spectrometry
  • Part 1. Principles of Mass Spectrometer Leak Testing with Helium Tracer Gas
  • Part 2. Tracer Probe Technique for Leak Testing of Evacuated Objects
  • Part 3. Hood Technique for Leak Testing of Evacuated Objects
  • Part 4. Accumulation Technique for Leak Testing of Evacuated Objects
  • Part 5. Detector Probe Technique for Leak Testing of Pressurized Objects
  • Part 6. Bell Jar Technique for Leak Testing of Pressurized Objects
  • Part 7. Accumulation Technique for Leak Testing of Pressurized Objects
  • Chapter 9. Mass Spectrometer Instrumentation for Leak Testing
  • Part 1. Principles of Detection of Helium Gas by Mass Spectrometers
  • Part 2. Sensitivity and Resolution of Mass Spectrometer Helium Leak Detectors
  • Part 3. Operation and Maintenance of Mass Spectrometer Vacuum System
  • Chapter 10. Leak Testing with Halogen Tracer Gases
  • Part 1. Introduction to Halogen Tracer Gases and Leak Detectors
  • Part 2. Introduction to Techniques of Halogen Leak Testing
  • Part 3. Recommended Techniques for Pressure Leak Testing with Halogen Detector Probe
  • Part 4. Industrial Applications of Halogen Leak Detection
  • Part 5. Writing Specifications for Halogen Leak Testing
  • Chapter 11. Acoustic Leak Testing
  • Part 1. Principles of Sonic and Ultrasonic Leak Testing
  • Part 2. Instrumentation for Ultrasound Leak Testing
  • Part 3. Ultrasound Leak Testing of Pressurized Industrial and Transportation Systems
  • Part 4. Ultrasound Leak Testing of Evacuated Systems
  • Part 5. Ultrasound Leak Testing of Engines, Valves, Hydraulic Systems, Machinery and Vehicles
  • Part 6. Electrical Inspection
  • Part 7. Ultrasound Leak Testing of Pressurized Telephone Cables
  • Part 8. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Leakage from Vessels, Tanks and Pipelines
  • Chapter 12. Infrared Thermographic Leak Testing
  • Part 1. Advantages and Techniques of Infrared Thermographic Leak Testing
  • Part 2. Infrared Leak Testing Using Emission Pattern Techniques
  • Part 3. Leak Testing Using Infrared Absorption
  • Part 4. Infrared Thermographic Leak Testing Using Acoustic Excitation
  • Chapter 13. Leak Testing of Petrochemical Storage Tanks
  • Part 1. Leak Testing of Underground Storage Tanks
  • Part 2. Leak Testing of Aboveground Storage Tanks
  • Part 3. Determining Leakage Rate in Petrochemical Structures
  • Chapter 14. Leak Testing of Hermetic Seals
  • Part 1. Characteristics of Gasketed Mechanical Hermetic Seals
  • Part 2. Characteristics of Hermetically Sealed Packages
  • Part 3. Techniques for Gross Leak Testing of Hermetically Sealed Devices
  • Part 4. Fine Leak Testing of Hermetically Sealed Devices with Krypton 85 Gas
  • Part 5. Fine Leak Testing of Hermetically Sealed Devices with Helium Gas
  • Chapter 15. Leak Testing Techniques for Special Applications
  • Part 1. Techniques with Visible Indications of Leak Locations
  • Part 2. Primary Containment Leakage Rate Testing in the United States Nuclear Power Industry
  • Part 3. Leak Testing of Geosynthetic Membranes
  • Part 4. Residual Gas Analysis
  • Chapter 16. Leak Testing Glossary